Science and Engineer Importance to Singapore

Singapore has boosted its water supply through water-recycling and also increased its land area by reclaiming land, all feats accomplished by engineers. And engineering will continue to be important for Singapore's future, as the country works towards becoming a smart nation and overcoming its lack of resources
Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong
(50th anniversary celebration of the IES)

Laboratory

Optical fiber


An optical fiber (or optical fibre) is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical_fiber

Typical Optical fiber



Single Mode Fiber



Others



Types of Optical fiber


Photonic Crystal fiber (PCF)

Photonic-crystal fiber (PCF) is the state of the art new class of optical fiber based on the properties of photonic crystals.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photonic-crystal_fiber


Types of PCF



PCF Sensors and their Application




PCF Temperature Sensor



PCF Strain Sensor



PCF Refractive Index Sensor




PCF Biosensor




Fiber optic sensor

A fiber optic sensor is a sensor that uses optical fiber either as the sensing element ("intrinsic sensors"), or as a means of relaying signals from a remote sensor to the electronics that process the signals ("extrinsic sensors").
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fiber_optic_sensor

Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG)

A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is a type of distributed Bragg reflector constructed in a short segment of optical fiber that reflects particular wavelengths of light and transmits all others.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fiber_Bragg_grating

Operating Principle of FBG



FBG Sensors and Their Application





Long Period Gratings (LPG)



Operating Principle of LPG



LPG Sensors and Their Applications



Optical Time-Domain Reflectometer (OTDR) for Sensing

An optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR) is an optoelectronic instrument used to characterize an optical fiber. An OTDR is the optical equivalent of an electronic time domain reflectometer.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical_time-domain_reflectometer


Phase Sensitive Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR)


https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2267465

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